The period being spoken of is the age of the Messiah, after Jesus returns and establishes His kingdom.
The Great Controversy
As to what will be restored, Jesus will not only restore the earth, but also the Kingdom of Israel. Within the grand unfolding plan of God are His many promises not only to restore Eden—a glorious garden-paradise, but also to restore the Jewish Kingdom to a glory far greater than during the days of King David or Solomon. In speaking of those days, the prophet Ezekiel describes, a river that will run southward, out of Jerusalem, turning the Dead Sea into a fresh water lake, teeming with life:.
It will come about that every living creature which swarms in every place where the river goes, will live. And there will be very many fish, for these waters go there and the others become fresh; so everything will live where the river goes. And it will come about that fishermen will stand beside it; from Engedi to Eneglaim there will be a place for the spreading of nets.
Their fish will be according to their kinds, like the fish of the Great Sea, very many. When is the last time that any Christian you know declared the good news that in the age to come, after we die, we will be able to fish? The Scriptures also affirm that after Jesus returns, He will set in place a new global leadership structure. Yet today, I think it is fair to say that many, if not most politicians, seek and maintain positions of authority not primarily for the purpose of truly serving others, but in order to secure greater wealth, power, and control.
This is a problem that is common throughout the world. How will Jesus respond to this when He returns? He will judge among the nations, He will fill them with corpses, He will shatter the chief men over a broad country. Genuinely humble servant leaders will assist Jesus in governing the new world. Yet as wonderful and glorious as these descriptions of a restored earth are, they are only part of the picture. Beyond a restored and glorified garden paradise, the Scriptures also speak of a glorified, restored Kingdom of Israel.
Instead, He assured them that at the proper time, according to the time set by the Father, He will return and restore the Kingdom of Israel. The Scriptures are brimming with references that testify to this reality. At the every onset of the Gospel of Luke, the angel Gabriel announced to Mary that the son she would bear would forever reign on the restored throne of David:. But you can't ignore the text—you must relate to it. But, adds Mazar, "you shouldn't seek to prove the text verbatim. For Yadin and his contemporaries, the Bible was unassailable. As a result, when he uncovered the city gates at the biblical city of Hazor in the late s, Yadin committed what would be a current-day archaeological no-no: Since carbon dating wasn't available, he used the Bible, along with the stratigraphy, to date the pottery found inside the gates.
He attributed the gates to the exalted tenth-century B. The problem with relying on this particular chapter of the Bible is that it was added long after Solomon died in B. To Yadin, the Bible said so and that was it. Three gates—they all have to be Solomon's.
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Today, many scholars including Franklin and her colleague Finkelstein doubt that all three gates are Solomonic, while others Amihai Mazar, for example think they could be. But all of them reject Yadin's circular reasoning, which in the early s helped spawn a backlash movement of "biblical minimalism," led by scholars at the University of Copenhagen. To the minimalists, David and Solomon were simply fictitious characters. The credibility of that position was undercut in , when an excavation team in the northern Israel site of Tel Dan dug up a black basalt stela inscribed with the phrase "House of David.
Why I Assigned The Kingdom | Stephen E. Lewis | First Things
Absent more evidence, we're left with the decidedly drab tenth-century B. Such an interpretation galls Israelis who regard David's capital as their bedrock. Many of the excavations undertaken in Jerusalem are financially backed by the City of David Foundation, whose director of international development, Doron Spielman, freely admits, "When we raise money for a dig, what inspires us is to uncover the Bible—and that's indelibly linked with sovereignty in Israel.
Unsurprisingly, this agenda does not sit well with the Jerusalem residents who happen to be Palestinian. Many excavations take place in the eastern part of the city, where their families have dwelled for generations but stand to be displaced if such projects morph into Israeli settlement claims.
From the Palestinian perspective, the scurrying for archaeological evidence to justify a people's sense of belonging misses the point. As East Jerusalem resident and archaeology professor Hani Nur el-Din says, "When I see Palestinian women making the traditional pottery from the early Bronze Age, when I smell the taboon bread baked in the same tradition as the fourth or fifth millennium B.
In Palestine there's no written document, no historicity—but still, it's history. Most Israeli archaeologists would prefer that their work not be used as a political wedge. This, nonetheless, is the way of young nations. Zimbabwe is named after an archaeological site. Archaeology is a very convenient tool for creating national identities.
That is one way in which Israel differs from other countries. Its national identity came well before any digging. Sprawling around him and his volunteer undergraduates from the University of California, San Diego is a acre copper production site—and adjacent to it, a large fortress complex that includes the ruins of 3,year-old guardhouses. Apparently the sentinels lived practically on top of the smelting operations, while overseeing a presumably reluctant labor force. The point is, simple tribal societies couldn't do something like this. Levy, an anthropologist, first came to southern Jordan in to examine metallurgy's role in social evolution.
The lowland district of Faynan, where the blue-green glitter of malachite can be seen from a distance, was an obvious place to study. It also happened to be where the American rabbi and archaeologist Nelson Glueck unabashedly proclaimed in that he had discovered the Edomite mines controlled by King Solomon.
Subsequent British excavators believed they had found evidence that Glueck was off by some three centuries and that Edom actually dated to the seventh century B. But when Levy started probing the site known as Khirbat en Nahas Arabic for "ruins of copper" , the samples he sent off to Oxford for radiocarbon dating confirmed that Glueck had been on the right track: This was a tenth-century copper-production site—and, Levy adds pointedly, "the closest copper source to Jerusalem.
The team headed by Levy and his Jordanian colleague Mohammad Najjar has uncovered a four-chambered gate similar to ones found at sites in Israel that might date to the tenth-century B. A few miles from the mines, they've excavated a cemetery of more than 3, tombs dating to the same period—perhaps filled with the remains of Iron Age mountain nomads known from ancient Egyptian sources as Shasu, who Levy thinks may have been "corralled at certain points in time and forced to work in the mines.
They found in this layer 22 date pits, which they dated to the tenth century B. That ruler's invasion of the region shortly after Solomon's death is chronicled in the Old Testament and at the Temple of Amun at Karnak. But they could organize some pretty big military campaigns—strong enough to upset these petty kingdoms, to make sure they wouldn't be a threat to them.
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That's what I think Shoshenq did here. Levy's copper mines may not be as sexy as King David's palace or the perch overlooking the battle of David and Goliath. But Levy's excavation work spans more time and area than those of Eilat Mazar and Yosef Garfinkel, with far more extensive use of radiocarbon analysis to determine the age of his site's stratigraphic layers. In fact, that is precisely what Levy's critics are doing. Some deemed his first 46 datings insufficient to justify reordering an entire chronology for Edom.
For his second round of C analysis, Levy doubled the number of samples and meticulously selected charcoal from shrubs with verifiable outer growth rings. You have debates about the whole C issue.maisonducalvet.com/citas-gratis-lakuntza.php
Crusade of controversy
Mazar contends that the stratum could be Solomonic. Finkelstein says it's from the later Omride dynasty, named for Omri, Ahab's father. The gap between the two eras is about 40 years. It's been this way for 15 years. It has brought all sorts of ideas to me. I myself would never dig in such a place—too hot! For me, archaeology is about having a good time. This is how Finkelstein begins his rebuttals, with amiable preambles that cannot conceal the Mephisto-like gleam in his eyes. For a scholar, the Tel Aviv archaeologist has a highly visceral manner—leaning his tall, bearded frame into a visitor's face, waving his large hands, modulating his baritone with Shakespearean agility.
Yet his charm wears thin for those who have felt the sting of his attacks. Similarly unamused is Yosef Garfinkel, who says of Finkelstein's recent receipt of a four-million-dollar research grant, "He doesn't even use science—that's the irony. Still, Finkelstein's theories strike an intellectually appealing middle ground between biblical literalists and minimalists. So years of compilation.
This doesn't mean that the story doesn't come from antiquity.
2. Good Intentions
But the reality presented in the story is a later reality. David, for example, is a historical figure. He did live in the tenth century B. I accept the descriptions of David as some sort of leader of an upheaval group, troublemakers who lived on the margins of society. But not the golden city of Jerusalem, not the description of a great empire in the time of Solomon.
When the authors of the text describe that, they have in their eyes the reality of their own time, the Assyrian Empire.
Sorry for that! But take Solomon, dissect it. Take the great visit of the Queen of Sheba—an Arabian queen coming to visit, bringing all sorts of exotic commodities to Jerusalem. This is a story which is an impossibility to think about before B. Take the story of Solomon as the great, you know, trainer in horses and chariots and big armies and so on. The world behind Solomon is the world of the Assyrian century.